Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporotic bones are more at risk of fracture. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old sex-matched healthy person average) as measured by DXA; the term “established osteoporosis” includes the presence of a fragility fracture. While treatment modalities are becoming available (such as the bisphosphonates), prevention is still considered the most important way to reduce fracture. Due to its hormonal component, more women, particularly after menopause, suffer from osteoporosis than men. In addition it may be caused by various hormonal conditions, smoking and medications (specifically glucocorticoids) as well as many chronic diseases.
Changes to lifestyle factors and diet are recommended, both regarding nutrition and exercise.